National Reports on Climate Change and Urban Resilience in South Asia

Urban Climate Resilience and Development in Pakistan: National Policy Paper


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This report delves into the intricate relationship between urbanization, climate change, and resilience-building in Pakistan, against the backdrop of South Asia’s burgeoning urban population.

With Pakistan’s rapid urban growth and the increasing frequency of climate-related disasters, it is imperative to comprehend the complex interplay of these factors. The report outlines the significant urbanization surge in South Asia, particularly in Pakistan, where the urbanization rate is the highest.

While this urban shift contributes substantially to the country’s GDP and tax revenue, there are concerns over the sustainability and environmental repercussions of unplanned urban expansion and its alignment with climate action. The study’s focus encompasses the assessment of prevailing urban development policies and interventions, identifying gaps in mitigation and adaptation strategies, and exploring viable financing mechanisms for fostering sustainable growth. Anchored in the resilience perspective, the study emphasizes equitable development that integrates climate action, ensuring fairness and justice for all stakeholders.

Climate Change and Urban Resilience in Nepal: Looking through the Lens of Urban Poor

Clean Energy Nepal (CEN) & CANSA

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While Nepal is one of the least urbanized countries, it is ranked among the rapidly urbanizing countries in South Asia. It has witnessed a dramatic rise in urban population from 17.07 percent to 66.08 percent. Critical drivers of rural migration include unemployment, access to quality education for the children, access to health facilities, social discrimination, loss of livelihood triggered by low productivity in agriculture due to climatic factors, including erratic rainfall, lack of market for local agri-products, among others.

Further, Nepal ranks 4th and 30th in terms of climate change and flood risk respectively. People’s lives and livelihoods are at risk due to climate-induced multiple hazards, mainly floods, landslides, cold waves, heat stress, droughts, windstorms, lightning strikes, communicable diseases, and fires. The poor and marginalized, female-led households and those in low-income informal settlements are among the most affected by the impacts of climate change. Moreover, the exposure is further intensified by overcrowded living conditions, lack of basic facilities and infrastructures, unsafe housing, poor sanitation, etc. Also, with the increasing climate crisis, cities will have the added burden of addressing urban poverty and concerns of the urban poor, who are expected to adversely affect the sustainable development.

capabilities of Nepal by aggravating pressures on the environment as municipalities are found to have varied sensitivities and adaptive capacities.

In this report, selected cases of urban poor are analyzed against the national policies and plans on climate change conventions, and recommendations made for building the resiliency of urban poor in the Nepali cities.

Climate Resilient Urban Development in Bangladesh: Policy Gaps and Recommendations


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This policy paper analyzes and briefly overviews Bangladesh’s overall urban development and adaptability to climate change. With an emphasis on the state of urbanization in Bangladesh, essential components of urban development, the effects of climate change, the political landscape, and action plans at the national and sectoral levels, it has been divided into six key chapters. In addition, case studies that emphasize the situational analysis of the urban poor and slums in urban regions have been explored.

Given the vulnerability profile of Bangladesh, the government has implemented climate policies to address risks and enhance resilience. The efforts fail to consider local government needs or accurately represent the realities on the ground. Recommendations have been made regarding the research and data gap, and funding distribution, which cover big-wheel issues such as budget allocation, inter-ministerial collaboration, and community participation to manage urban resilience and boost Bangladesh’s response to climate change.